Major social media companies including YouTube, Facebook and TikTok moved to ban Russian state media outlets in Europe, blocking Moscow’s biggest megaphone for influencing public opinion about the war in Ukraine in a critical region on its borders.

The moves by the social media giants came after mounting pressure from the European Commission, the Ukrainian government, some U.S. politicians, and their own employees.

The moves are likely to provoke retaliation from Russia, which has already restricted social media services in response to previous measures the companies have taken to curtail the Kremlin’s ability to spread misinformation and propaganda about its invasion of Ukraine.

“Due to the ongoing war in Ukraine, we’re blocking YouTube channels connected to RT and Sputnik across Europe, effective immediately,” Google Europe said in a tweet. “It’ll take time for our systems to fully ramp up. Our teams continue to monitor the situation around the clock to take swift action.”The latest on the war in Ukraine

State media outlets RT and Sputnik have relied on American social networks, as well as Chinese-owned TikTok, to gain massive followings and reach audiences outside Russia’s borders. RT’s Facebook channel has more than 7 million followers, though it’s not clear how many were located in the European Union. RT’s YouTube account has 4.65 million followers in English and 5.94 million in Spanish. RT and Sputnik also run prominent television channels and radio stations in several countries.

But Silicon Valley companies have long been reluctant to curtail state-owned media outlets, even when they are mouthpieces for a foreign government’s distorted worldview. Instead, they have chosen to label outlets as state media.

At the start of Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, the companies continued fact-checking individual pieces of content and resisted calls for outright bans.

Misinformation from Russian state-backed media outlets proliferated, including misleading articles alleging that Ukrainian armed forces attacked civilians or tried to destroy critical infrastructure in separatist regions or in Russia, according to research from the Oxford Internet Institute at Oxford University. At least 30 articles speculated that Ukraine may have started or plans to develop nuclear weapons, warning about “what nuclear bombs in the hands of the far right lead to,” or alleged that Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelensky had a “dangerous nuclear fantasy,” Oxford found. Russian state media has also tried to paint a picture of Ukraine as being associated with far-right organizations and Nazis, though Zelensky is Jewish.

But the pressure on social media companies to use their power as gatekeepers mounted swiftly. First, the Ukrainian government asked the firms to ban the channels within its borders, and the companies complied.

Then, Russia began to slow traffic to tech companies’ services within Russia in retaliation for fact-checking state media reports, according to Facebook.

On Friday, Facebook and YouTube banned advertising from Russian state media, an effort that prevented the companies from earning revenue from content that supported the invasion.

On Monday, Facebook and TikTok said they would shut down access to RT and Sputnik in Europe. Facebook’s announcement came in a tweet from its president for global affairs, Nick Clegg. TikTok confirmed its decision to The Washington Post late Monday.

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